Pets have needed the upgrade to pet safe cleaning products for years. Way back in 2008, an Environmental Working Group (EWG) study ‘Polluted Pets‘ found 60 pet dogs and cats tested positive for a mind-blowing 48 out of 70 industrial chemicals.
Can you imagine what that figure is now?
It’s why the dedicated No Bull, Just Natural Health for Dogs Facebook team are noticing a rise in dog health issues linked to chemical cleaning product use.
And it’s the reason for this article: Firstly, we will uncover the six ways that everyday home cleaning products are harming animals, and if ‘pet safe’ cleaning brands are truly pet safe. We’ll then explain how upgrading cleaning chemicals for probiotic alternatives creates a healthier, safer and more pet-friendly indoor environment.
Pet Safe, Probiotic Cleaning Products vs Chemicals
The Six Ways Toxic Chemicals Affect Animals
The use of cleaning chemicals in the name of health and hygiene has grown exponentially since WW2; even more so since the Covid-19 pandemic. But the reality is, Covid has caused a noticeable rise in pet health issues linked to cleaning chemicals. Cleaning chemicals are more ‘anti-life’ than supportive of life; they are often pet poisons that are dangerous for cats and dogs. They create more problems than they solve – for you, your pets and the planet.
Back in 2008, Jane Houlihan from EWG said “This study demonstrating the chemical body burden of dogs and cats is a wake-up call for stronger safety standards from industrial chemical exposures that will protect all members of our families, including our pets.”
But the opposite happened – and our furry friends’ chemical body burden continues to grow.
Problem 1: Chemical Cleaning Products are Toxic for Cats and Dogs
Dr Karen Becker recently made this statement about cats, but it applies to your dog too:
“Why should you care about what chemicals are in the cleaners you use around the house? Because every cleaning product and home scenting product you’ve ever purchased will end up INSIDE your cat because of this: they are clean freaks! So, choose your products very wisely!”
The challenge is, harmful chemicals such as ammonia, bleach, hydrogen peroxide, phthalates and formaldehyde are in most cleaning products. Cleaning sprays, wipes, concentrates, soaps, laundry products, hand wash, disinfectants and air fresheners are often brim full of known toxins. For example:
“Do not allow pets to walk on treated surfaces until they are dry, or to lick surfaces that have been sprayed or wiped with this product.”
This bottle was placed on an outdoor café table overlooking the sea during Covid. A huge sign warned diners to ‘stay safe’ and thoroughly clean the table with it after eating.
Most tables had dogs with them. But no one (not even the pet-loving café owners) read the label before spraying.
This massive and chronic daily contamination is untenable for people – but our poor pets are even more susceptible. The EWG study found higher levels of cleaning chemical toxins in the blood samples of pets than humans. This is no surprise – their far smaller bodies don’t process toxins as quickly, and their compressed life spans increases their vulnerability. They also live life nearer to the toxin-laden floor and do not have the added protection of clothing.
Chemical cleaning products are harmful to cats because they groom constantly and are highly sensitive to chemical pollution.
Chemical cleaning products are harmful to dogs even though they don’t groom, because they do lick their paws and skin. This is especially true if they suffer from skin issues and allergies.
As a result, both dogs and cats are at risk of short and long-term illness from touching, inhaling, swallowing or just absorbing cleaning chemicals through their skin. This can lead to health issues including:
- Nausea or vomiting
- Throat, nose and eye irritation
- Skin and respiratory allergies
- Digestive problems
- Weight changes
- Damage to the central nervous system, kidney, and liver
- Poor immunity and cancer.
But it can also be more subtle than this. Your pet may just seem very tired or quiet, or a bit out of sorts. Either way, reviewing their indoor environment can make a tangible difference to their overall health.
Chemical Cleaning Products are Harmful for Pets to Inhale Too
It’s not just skin contact that is the problem. Many cleaning chemicals emit volatile organic compounds (VOCs) into the air. These toxins are designed to evaporate and spread quickly throughout your house. Its why some window cleaning sprays state ‘do not breathe the mist.’
In our opinion, it’s why the new resident vet for a well known cleaning product range says “If you have fish or reptiles in tanks, make sure they are covered over while you clean and for at least half an hour afterwards”. (And this is for the new ‘pet safe’ range!)
Pets’ indoor air should be as clean and safe as possible. But chemical odour control (which is really just ‘scent masking’) is not the answer.
Commercial air fresheners release fragranced chemicals into the air that are toxic for pets to breathe in.
Droplets also contaminate where they fall – so your pet can step on, roll in or lick chemical air freshener that settles on the floor.
In the same way, scented candles smell good but are equally risky. A key ingredient is petroleum wax, which releases soot and smoke – known carcinogens and neurotoxins – into the air. This reduces indoor air quality, aggravates your pet’s allergies and asthma and can increase their risk of cancer.
An additional problem for dogs is that they have around 50 times more scent receptors than humans. Their sense of smell is a huge 10,000 to 100,000 times stronger than ours, depending on their breed. So, if you use scented air freshener or floor cleaner that smells strong to you, imagine how overpowering this is for your dog!
Problem 2: Chemical Cleaners Can Trigger Allergies
If your pet suffers from skin and respiratory allergies and sensitivities, you’ll know how hard this is for them. If the cause is environmental or seasonal this can become a relentless, life-long condition. This is because the allergen triggers are hard to escape – they are in the poor animal’s daily life and play havoc with their immune system.
Common allergens include dust mite, pollen, trees, flea bites, mould, grass and chemical cleaning products. They can trigger skin and respiratory symptoms, eye irritation and lethargy that is chronic or that flares up from time to time. Skin symptoms range from mild irritation to unbearable itching.
Attempts to alleviate the itching by licking and scratching often make things worse. It can lead to severe rashes, dermatitis, sores, redness, flaky skin, loss of fur – and even infected wounds and hot spots. Respiratory allergy symptoms are equally uncomfortable and include wheezing, coughing, panting and a constant runny nose.
Chemical floor cleaners are especially linked to atopic allergies in pets. This is because your pet may walk on the chemically-cleaned floor and then lick their paws or try to soothe their itchy skin.
And other cleaners can do the same if your pet likes to surf tables and countertops!
As an aside, some chemical floor cleaning products labels say ‘completely pet-safe’ – but only once the floor is completely dry. And only if you keep your cherished pet well away whilst using them.
In this case, it’s always worth asking what happens if the floor doesn’t stay dry…
- Dogs only sweat from two places, their nose and their paws. Is wetting the chemically cleaned floor with sweaty paws and then licking them a cause for concern?
- Can your dog swallow dried chemicals when having a messy dinner floor-licking session?
- Or reactivate chemical residue and absorb it through their skin after a bath or a wet walk?
- Or on a warm day or when the underfloor heating is on?
If the answers are no because the risk after drying is negligible – ask where the chemicals go. Is the floor safe, but the air is full of chemicals instead? Remember, when you hear reference to VOCs, the “V” refers to chemicals that are volatile. This means they are designed to evaporate from liquid on the floor into your indoor air.
The average human breathes in considerably more air (in weight) that they eat – around 15kg every single day. Dogs and cats take around 15 – 30 breaths every single minute depending on their size. It’s really worth bearing in mind the amount of chemicals they inhale every day.
Problem 3: Chemical Cleaners Increase Antimicrobial Resistance (AMR)
Adverts for chemical cleaners boast about how many bacteria and viruses (‘germs’) they kill. They are designed to be ‘anti-life’; they portray that the more microorganisms they kill, the better. But the problem is – although it seems completely unconnected – this ‘anti-life’ approach harms your pet’s health in a significant way: Chemical cleaning products contribute to a process called antimicrobial resistance (AMR). This leads directly to a decrease in antibiotic effectiveness.
AMR is described as ‘the development by a disease-causing microbe, through mutation or gene transfer, of the ability to survive exposure to an antimicrobial agent (e.g. antibiotics) that was previously an effective treatment’.
In other words, it can be why your pet is back and forth to the vet with an ear infection that won’t go away. AMR makes some infections harder to treat because they stop responding to antibiotics (or other treatments) that used to work.
The truth is, bacteria are essential for life itself…
Bacteria get a bad press, but only a tiny minority – about 0.01% – are potentially harmful. These include MRSA, salmonella and E. coli and can cause ill health for us and our pets. But killing all the bacteria – the ‘good’ along with the ‘bad’ is never a good thing. It causes enormous problems.
Every life form on Earth originates from bacteria. They are the cornerstone of existence. Without bacteria, our bodies won’t function for long. Helpful bacteria help our bodies produce vitamin K, are essential for good digestive function – and even help our bodies fight certain illnesses. Animals have more bacteria on them – and in them – than they have cells of their own body. Some bacteria actively benefit their animal host.
Many bacteria are inert. Their role is simply to provide balance within the microbiome. The microbiome is the collection of microorganisms – bacteria, viruses and fungi – that inhabit a particular environment. Every surface has a microbiome, whether human or animal skin, inside the body, flooring, soft furnishings – even the device you are reading this on.
A healthy, balanced microbiome with plenty of friendly (‘good’) bacteria is the key to keeping the harmful, pathogenic (‘bad’) bacteria in check. It is also supports better0 health and immunity.
But chemical and anti-bacterial cleaning products do not discriminate. Their ‘anti-life’ approach wipes out the carefully balanced microbiome and kills the helpful bacteria that keep the harmful ones in check. Without this natural competition, the harmful bacteria gain the upper hand. They multiply, transform and become stronger until they develop resistance to the chemicals. Increasingly stronger chemicals are then needed to kill these ‘superbugs.’
This process of antimicrobial resistance reduces the effectiveness of cleaning chemicals as well as antibiotics and other medicines. It makes infections harder to treat.
The World Health Organisation (WHO) estimates AMR will cause 10 million deaths a year by 2050 if we don’t change our behaviour.
The overuse and incorrect use of antibiotics in humans and animals also causes AMR. Read our AMR news posts for more.
Problem 4: Chemical Cleaning Allows Quick Recontamination
Although chemical cleaners are lauded for killing 99.9% of microorganisms in the microbiome, advertising rarely includes how long this lasts. Unfortunately, chemical cleaning often allows quick recontamination. Microorganisms are all around us, so they naturally settle back onto the surfaces. As a result, surfaces can return to their pre-cleaned state (in terms of microscopic organisms) less than one hour after chemical cleaning.
Unfortunately, chemical cleaning wipes out the crucial competition from good bacteria, which allows the stronger, pathogenic bacteria to re-contaminate quickly.
The surfaces you clean once a day, every day, with chemicals are often not as clean as they look. They may appear visually clean but are likely to be re-contaminated with pathogenic bacteria for 23 hours a day.
Problem 5: Many Chemicals are Toxic to Aquatic Life
You probably don’t think about water pollution when flushing the toilet or pouring something down the sink or drain. But the truth is, wastewater treatment facilities don’t filter out anywhere near everything. Chemicals enter rivers and oceans and aquatic life (fish, invertebrates, amphibians and other flora and fauna which inhabit water) pay the price. Chemicals damage their renal and digestive function and can accelerate plant growth, which depletes their oxygen.
Do you ever read the safety data sheets or the back of the bottles of the chemicals in your cleaning cupboards? If not, it’s a time to take a look. Most bottles state the risks; but who reads the label?
And it’s scary reading. Far too many warn ‘contains chemicals that are harmful to aquatic life with long lasting effect’. Even toilet cleaners that flush into waterways can contain hydrochloric acid, sodium laureth sulfate or bleach). These and other dangerous chemicals are harmful to dogs and cats and aquatic life.
This hazardous warning sign means ‘very toxic to aquatic life’. It often comes with the precautionary statement ‘avoid release into the environment.’
Shocking statements to see on your toilet or floor cleaner – products that are created to be flushed down the drain and into the waterways!
And if it’s killing the fish – what is it doing if your cheeky pup or cat takes a sneaky drink from the toilet bowl?
‘Forever chemicals’ (PFAS) used in stain and water-resistant household products are ending up in the Himalayas – and even inside polar bears.
But the point is – always read the safety data. Really understand the safety implications of what you are using. (If there isn’t much information on the product label, each will have a Safety Data Sheet, or ‘COSHH’ Sheet on the supplier website).
Understand exactly what you are allowing into your home and around your pet. Check for warning statements that explain if the product risks more harm than good for your unsuspecting pet. These warnings are from well-known cleaning brands:
- May produce allergic reaction’ (‘pet safe’ cleaning product)
- ‘Causes serious eye irritation’ (bathroom spray)
- ‘Causes skin irritation’ (laundry detergent)
- ‘Harmful to aquatic life with long lasting effects’ (toilet cleaner)
- ‘Wear protective gloves/eye protection’ (general purpose cleaner)
- ‘If ventilation is insufficient, wear respiratory protection’ (disinfectant)
- ‘Toxic if inhaled. Do not breathe the mist’ (window cleaner).
- ‘Toxic if swallowed’ (floor cleaner)
- ‘Highly flammable liquid and vapour’ (general purpose cleaner)
- ‘This material and its container must be disposed as hazardous waste’ (disinfectant).
Problem 6: Chemical Ingredients May be Tested on Animals
The UK banned all forms of animal testing for household cleaning products in 2015. Rising ethics and new regulations means it is declining everywhere, but the RSPCA still has concerns: Companies can override some clauses if they deem it necessary to satisfy other legislation such as the EU Chemicals Regulation (REACH). And although ‘end product’ animal testing is rare, testing on individual ingredients still happens.
Brands don’t advertise their animal testing, so it’s not always easy to know which do. Cruelty-Free Soul lists some of the well-known brands that still use animal testing. Some names on the list may surprise you; some newer brands that are genuinely cruelty-free have larger parent companies that still test on animals.
Time for the Good News – the Pet Safe Cleaning Solution
The good news is, you can update your old-fashioned cleaning chemicals that are dangerous for pets in a heartbeat. Simply swap your everyday toxic cleaners for healthier, safer and thoroughly researched probiotic alternatives.
Before we start, here is a quick overview: How probiotic pet safe cleaning products compare with chemicals that are harmful to cats and dogs.
Six Benefits of EVAA+ Pet Safe Cleaning Products with Probiotics
Not only are these healthy cleaning products eco-friendly and sustainable, they contain live, naturally-sourced microorganisms (probiotics or ‘good’ bacteria) that enhance functions and benefits.
Unlike chemicals, EVAA+ pet safe home cleaning products from Provilan (meaning ‘for – life – balance’) focus on health and ecology. They are specifically designed for your home and are intrinsically safe for your pets, for you, for the environment and for aquatic life.
The World Health Organisation (WHO) describes probiotics as “live microorganisms that, when administered in adequate amounts, confer a health benefit on the host.” You may be familiar with the benefits of taking oral probiotics after a course of antibiotics. The probiotics replace the good bacteria killed by the antibiotics and restore the disrupted microbiome balance. In the same way, probiotic cleaning products replace good bacteria destroyed by chemical cleaning.
Introducing good bacteria alongside non-hazardous cleaning restores a healthier microflora to your pet’s indoor environment. This simple switch helps to create a healthier living space that is pet-friendly, lower-allergen and lower-chemical. This supports their general well-being and immunity and helps to reduce stress.
Benefit 1: Safe Cleaning Products for Your Pets
Provilan cleaning products do not contain chemicals of concern such as Methylisothiazolinone (MIT) and Phenoxyethanol. These endocrine disruptors are linked to cancer and are harmful to aquatic life.
Provilan probiotic cleaning products are naturally-sourced and do not contain harmful levels of chemicals that are toxic for your pet to inhale, touch or ingest.
They are properly safe to use around pets, when wet or dry, or when sprayed into the air. You don’t need to cover your goldfish bowl or keep your dog out of the kitchen whilst you use them!
This protects your pet from disruptive chemical exposure to their skin, digestive system and respiratory tract.
Unlike many chemical manufacturers – regulation is Probiotic Group’s ally. Manufacturing of Provilan products is underpinned by rigorous testing and research. There are no uncomfortable truths about risks to well-being and the environment lurking in the background. Read our news post Only the Best Probiotics – How Science and Ethics are Leading the Way for more.
Most products do require a small amount of bio-surfactant (soap for mechanical cleaning), emulsifier and/or stabiliser (for the foaming effect) and preservative, to guarantee effectiveness. As the focus is on health and ecology, these are from renewable, natural sources. They are used in the smallest amounts possible and are certified to be below harmful limits. Examples are:
- Coco glucoside – an non-ionic bio-surfactant, foaming agent and emulsifier. This derives from coconut oil and fruit sugars and is completely biodegradable.
- Sodium benzoate – a food-safe preservative and stabiliser extracted from natural food sources. It is good for aquatic life.
Unlike chemical air fresheners, EVAA+ Odour Remover is a pet safe air freshener that does not pollute indoor air. The spray works in a natural way to prevent and remove odours such as urine and sweat at their source. Read our probiotic odour remover news posts for more information.
Benefit 2: Pet Safe Cleaning Products that are Allergy-Friendly
EVAA+ Probiotic cleaning products beneficial for pets (and humans) with allergies and sensitive skin. They reduce environmental and seasonal bio-allergens in the indoor environment:
The helpful probiotics consume bio-allergens that trigger allergic reactions, including pollen, dead skin cells and mite poop. This protects pets with skin or respiratory allergies.
Read our post Probiotics for Dog Skin Allergies – the Itchy Dog Relief 3 Step Plan to find out more. This solution focusses on dogs, but is equally relevant for allergic cats and other pets too. If you have a poorly pet who constantly needs anti-allergy medications and topical treatments this can really help. It tackles many of the root causes and can reduce many allergens that constantly aggravate the problem. Although it’s not possible to reduce exposure to all allergens – especially those outside – this simple change can have a big impact.
Benefit 3: Pet Friendly Cleaning that Decreases Antimicrobial Resistance
EVAA+ pet safe cleaning products are eco-friendly, sustainable, non-polluting and quickly biodegradable.
The helpful probiotics work in a safe, natural way that does not push harmful bacteria to mutate and become superbugs. This reduces AMR and helps to protect the effectiveness of antibiotics.
How Probiotic Cleaning Products Work
EVAA+ pet safe cleaning products contain huge numbers of heathy probiotic bacteria that form a protective ‘army’.
They simply outnumber and replace the bad bacteria that cause ill-health and take back control of the microbiome. They compete with the bad bacteria for natural food sources until the pathogens starve and fade away.
This mechanical process is called bio-replacement. It does not cause antimicrobial resistance.
Benefit 4: Cleaning Products that Slow Recontamination Times
The helpful probiotics remain on surfaces and keep working for up to 72 hours after application. They act as a defending army to prevent the almost immediate re-contamination by pathogens that happens after cleaning with chemicals. Their slow release, longer-lasting, deep cleaning action keeps floors and surfaces cleaner for longer. This can also increase product value by lengthening cleaning intervals and reducing product usage over time.
If you are concerned that ditching your chemicals will lead to poor hygiene – don’t worry. Probiotic cleaning is proven to achieve better hygiene results: clinical studies show how probiotic cleaning reduces infection rates in hospitals. (This is so important; hospital acquired infections in the USA currently kill more people than breast and testicular cancer combined.)
Although this article focusses on bacteria, probiotic cleaning products are also effective against viruses. The eco-surfactants, like all detergents, work alongside the scrubbing action to break down the outer membrane of envelope-type viruses (including Coronavirus). New research also shows that probiotic cleaning is achieving better results against viruses compared with standard disinfection techniques (including SARS-CoV-2).
Even in the midst of Coronavirus, it’s important to raise awareness of bacterial infections as a serious issue: In the 12 months between April 2017 and April 2018, 65,000 human deaths were related to bacterial infections in England. This is similar to Covid-related death rates.
Benefit 5: Pet safe Cleaners that are Safe for Aquatic Life
Probiotic cleaning products are safe for aquatic life, not lethal. They positively benefit the environment and reduce water pollution and the toxic burden; they do not add to it.
Protecting the waterways and oceans:
EVAA+ pet safe cleaning products do not contain toxic chemicals and are safe to discard down the drain.
The helpful probiotics continue to clean and consume organic waste in the wastewater, sewage, drains and pipework on its way to rivers and the ocean.
In addition, containers are made using ocean recovered plastics and – unlike many chemical products – are fully recyclable as there are no toxic contents. Read our news post Toxic Chemicals and a Circular Economy: Naturally Incompatible for more.
Benefit 6: PETA Certified Vegan and Cruelty-Free
All ingredients are PETA certified as vegan. The helpful probiotics are sourced from plants such as colza and beans. All ingredients are manufactured with compassion and not tested on animals.
Upgrading to Pet Safe Cleaning Products – the Next Steps
Switching to naturally sourced, probiotic and pet safe cleaning products is easy: Simply replace the chemical cleaning products you currently use around the home for low-allergy, low-chemical, probiotic versions.
You can change as many or as few products as you wish, every little helps. The EVAA+ range has pet friendly cleaning products for floors and carpets, windows and hard surfaces and washing your hands. EVAA+ Toilet Cleaner is ideal for pet safe loo cleaning that protects aquatic life.
EVAA+ Universal Concentrate is a pet safe surface cleaner all rounder that replaces cleaning chemicals both indoor and outdoors. You can use it for pet safe cleaning of patios, fake grass and your car, as well pet carriers, kennels and litter trays.
If your pet is very sensitive, switching to pet safe washing up liquid for food and water bowls will help as well.
Instead of chemical air freshener, you can spray probiotic odour remover into the air and over soft furnishings such as dog bedding, curtains, carpets and sofas. This natural spray does not contain eco-surfactants (cleaning soap) and can be with, or without scent. As dogs have around 50 times more scent receptors than humans, choose unscented if in doubt.
Or if you prefer to machine wash bedding, probiotic laundry detergent cleans dog bedding without chemicals and helps reduce bio allergens.
In summary, it is hard for pets to feel really well if they are bombarded by constant exposure to poisons. Changing from chemical to naturally sourced probiotic cleaning that are not harmful to pets helps to reduce their stress. It improves indoor air quality and restores healthier ecological balance in your home.
Remember, all of the above (apart from the paw licking!) also applies to the health of the people you live with. Chemical cleaning can affect the health of your children (especially babies who crawl on the floor) and elderly relatives.
If you have someone who does the cleaning for you, it’s good to consider the impact on their health too. Probiotic sustainable detergents protect cleaning operative health, they do not increase the risk of serious illness. In contrast, chronic exposure to chemical cleaning products increases mortality in the cleaning industry.
Read the original pdf written for the dedicated Facebook group, No Bull Just Natural Health for Dogs: Polluted Pets: Why it’s Time to Connect Cleaning Products to Dog Care.
Footnote: Strictly speaking, even referring to pure water as a chemical is correct. But in this context, ‘chemical’ refers to harsh, damaging products
Pet Safe Cleaning Products – References
Polluted pets (Environmental Working Group – ewg.org)
Rodney report with Dr Karen Becker – household cleaners can damage pets (Facebook)
Dr Karen Becker – cats and cleaning products (Facebook)
Potential of an eco-sustainable probiotic-cleaning formulation in reducing infectivity of enveloped viruses
Colloidal silver for dogs: is it safe? (Dogs Naturally magazine)
The effect of chronic silver nanoparticles on aquatic system in microcosms (National Library of Medicine)
Early exposure to household cleaning products associated with asthma and wheeze in young children (Canadian Medical Journal for Children)
Cleaning product use affecting asthma more during covid-19 measures (science daily)
Health effects of indoor air quality on young people and children (The Royal College of Paediatrics and Child Health) – includes cleaning products as a heath concern.
Mass use of hand gels to control Covid risks creating superbug ‘armageddon’ as other bacteria and viruses build up resistance, researchers warn (Mail Online)
Disinfectant overkill: what are “quats” and why are they a problem? Women’s Voices of the Earth podcast – links cleaning product use to fertility issues
Health and well-being in building services (UK Chartered Institute of Building Engineering (CIBSE, TM40 recommendations section 220.127.116.11). “Emissions from cleaning products can have a significant impact on indoor air quality, affecting the regular building users and the professional cleaning teams.”
Researchers find connection between household chemicals and gut microbiome (Medical Press)
8 Hidden toxins: what’s lurking in your cleaning products? (Experience Life)
Pet owners warned after Zoflora disinfectant poisons dog (Metro)
The surprising dangers of cooking and cleaning – why indoor air pollution is an overlooked problem (the BBC)
Continuously active disinfection: minimizing the role of surface and equipment recontamination in the transmission of healthcare pathogens (PDIHC White Paper) – the speed of re-contamination when using anti-life cleaning products
Results of research on probiotic-based sanitation method (Chemical Watch) – study by esteemed microbiologist
Disinfectants ‘fuelling rise of MRSA patients on wards’ (The Times) – report on disinfectants and AMR
Man-made microbial resistances in built environments (Nature Communications) – links to report above
Re-modulating hospital microbiota cuts infections and costs (Africa’s Medical Brief Digest) – medical journal reports on improved hygiene results after switch from traditional anti-life cleaning to probiotic cleaning in 5 hospitals in Europe.
Testing household products on animals (Animal Research)
All you need to know about animal testing in cleaning products (Cruelty-Free Soul)